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【轉貼】要打造「未來學校」,先創新教育思維

2007-01-26 @ 08:29 in ⓣ教材研究

專訪聯合國教科文組織人類發展教育委員會
台灣未來學校國際顧問團委員 Eduardo Chaves
要打造「未來學校」,先創新教育思維
聯合國教科文組織人類發展教育委員\台灣未來學校國際顧問團委員
Eduardo Chaves
聯合國教科文組織人類發展教育委員
台灣未來學校國際顧問團委員
Eduardo Chaves

我們正快速告別工業時代,邁向所謂的資訊社會或知識經濟。
改變已不可避免
從西方的中古世紀起,類似學校的單位開始存在,但隨著我們快速跨越進入後工業時代,邁向所謂的知識經濟時代,學校的型態也開始改變。
而「未來學校」,不管它的名字叫什麼,這是一個我們沒有,但此刻迫切需要的學校。時代變化的腳步比學校來得飛快許多,因此,當我們談到「未來學校」時,指的是一個,在知識經濟時代,可以教育我們孩子、以及教育我們的學校。
當然,科技在「未來學校」中是不可或缺的一部份,然而科技本身並不代表全部。如果我們想要一所真正能駕馭未來的學校,這所學校將不只有一套範本、一種準則。我們必須無畏地開啟所謂單向傳授知識的「教導式黑箱」,同時也必須認知到,實質的改變已經不能避免。

駕馭變革,迎向未來
「未來學校」是全新的,不全然因為科技,而是由全新的教育視野、全新的學習認知與各種創新的互動教學,構成它的基石。
過去,學校環境是單純,甚至可說是封閉的。但如今,資訊網絡讓現代學生處於一個更開放、資訊更多元的環境。現代學生,對新的學習環境已經有了最充足的準備。因此,我們最大的挑戰在於,如何使現今與未來的校長及教師開始變革,認知變革,並駕馭變革。變化本身沒有絕對好壞,但我們不能避免它的發生。
在未來,我們無論何時何地,都在學習。這股改變的大浪,將有百萬個教師受到影響,而微軟推動的全球夥伴學習計畫,也有上萬個同仁在全球協助遇到困難的學校教育與小學教育機構。
在未來,學校無須炫麗的建築,需要的是完善的資訊基礎架構。在未來,學校裡沒有標準化課程和評分制度,取而代之的是,持續創新的學習思維和每個快樂自主學習的小小領袖。

已三度應台灣全球夥伴學習計畫之邀,前來台灣分享教育理念的 Edurado 也對台灣已起跑的未來學校,提出建議:

問:打造一個「未來學校」,成功關鍵因素是什麼?
Chaves:最重要的,是教育思維的突破。「未來學校」並非以大樓或資訊基礎建設為指標,而是創新的教育思維,包括對「學習」的新觀念,新詮釋,以及各種新穎的教學方法。

第二個關鍵在於「人」。人才必須擁抱嶄新的教學思維,不只是「願意」,而應該要是「渴求」它,有著專注推動它的熱情。接著,我們必須給這些人足夠的教學自由、鼓勵及輔助工具,若非如此,幾乎是不可能去重新創造一套新的學校教育機制。之後,我們才能繼續談學校課程、資訊基礎建設與大樓硬體設備的提昇。

問:「未來學校」會改變我們現有的學習方式嗎?哪些改變已經可以預期,它會如何發生?這改變將會對學生和教師帶來好的影響嗎?
Chaves:在未來,現有學習方式無疑將產生巨大改變,而「未來學校」將吸收這些改變,包括:我們學習「什麼」,「如何」學習,以及「何時」學習。而這三者息息相關。

在「未來學校」,學習並非只是吸收資訊。學習最重要的是,能力的培養,發展競爭力。所有的學習都是從「做」中學。學習的目的,並非只有「懂得」,而是「懂得如何去做」。

因此,學校課程並非一個以不同年級為分類架構的「主題套餐」,而是把我們要培養的主要競爭力看作是鑲嵌精細的馬賽克,其中蘊含許多不同的子競爭力,對應到不同的技能、態度、價值觀與充分資訊,從而去發展它。

其次,「未來學校」將改變我們的學習方式。未來能力的重點包括「懂得如何去做」,也就是說,學習必須主動、從做中學,必須是自發性的、由自己主導,是一個結合興趣的「從做中學」。

這就是所謂「專案導向學習」的真諦。然而,當專案、問題或探索的題目是由老師單向為學生指定時,這些學習方法並不能發生預期的效果,這就是我為何強調學習的需求,必須是自發性的,而且是自己主導的。

我們的整個人生都將投入學習。未來學校必須開放給有心學習新技能的各種不同年紀者。也就是說,未來學校無須為孩子打包一個為期12年的學習生涯。孩童、年輕人與每個成人都會遇到他發現自己必須或是想要學習的時刻,而這讓學習變得更浩瀚無垠。

問:您覺得「受教育」的最重要意義是什麼?
Chaves:我們生來就不能獨立勝任存活的挑戰,而必須由他人照顧。所幸,我們還有兩個重要的特色:首先,是驚人的學習能力;第二,是一個需要執行適當軟體的硬體。

我們生來就有個卓越的硬體,也就是我們的大腦,但一開始卻只有極少的程式被安裝。隨著不斷安裝更多的程式,也就是「學習」,才能成為現在的我們。

所以,教育談的就是,一個人類發展的過程,允許我們不只求生存,更培養自主性,選擇我們要過的人生。

科技不是多新或多厲害,才能叫做科技。科技來自於讓生活過得更容易、更愉快。有時候,生活並不便利,有時候,生活十分無趣。這就是我們為何要發明科技,是工具,是玩具。文學、音樂、繪畫、雕刻......等藝術,也是一種科技。它幫助我們生活過得更容易、讓我們想要活得更有樂趣些。

Question : What are the main critical success factors to set up a School of the Future?

The first thing of them all is pedagogical vision. The School of the Future will not be characterized by its building or by its technological infrastructure: it will be characterized by its pedagogical vision, that includes a new view or concept of education, a new understanding of learning, and novel methods for promoting learning.

The second critical success factor is people. It is essential that we find people who are more than willing – who are eager to embrace this pedagogical vision and are dedicated to promoting it. And then we need to give them freedom, incentive and tools without which it is virtually impossible to reinvent schooling.

It is only after these two factors are adequately faced that issues relating to curricula, technological infrastructure and buildings ought to be raised.

Question: Will the School of the Future change the way we learn now? What sort of change can we expect and how will it happen? Will these changes be good both for students and teachers?

I have no doubt that there will be enormous changes in the way we learn in the future – and the School of the Future will have to assimilate them. These changes can be classified in the following way:

  • Changes in what we learn
  • Changes in how we learn
  • Changes in when we learn
As we will see, these three things are interconnected.

In the School of the Future learning will not be identified with assimilation of information. The most important element of learning is capacity building, the development of competencies. Every learning involves a doing. The object of learning is not a mere "knowing that", but a "knowing how".

So, the curriculum will not be a set of subject matters (academic disciplines) organized by grade: it will be a mosaic of competencies, in which each competency will be linked to the skills, to the attitudes, to the values and to the information required to develop it.

This brings us to the second set of changes I mentioned: change in how we learn. Since competencies involve “knowing how”, learning must be active, learning must basically imply doing. But this doing is not doing what other people tell us to: it must be self-generated and self-directed doing, a doing that is related to one’s interests.

This is the essence of what some people call today “project-based learning” (or “problem-based learning”, or “inquiry-based learning”). However, this approach to learning is not effective if the projects, the problems, the inquiries are determined by the teacher for the student. That is why I emphasize the need for learning to be self-generated and self-directed.

So, we, the learners, ought to choose not only what we are going to learn – what sort of competencies we will need to develop, given our talents, interests and goals in life – but also how we are going to learn – what sort of learning projects are most worthwhile.

Question: What is the most important meaning of having Education?

I think that education is a process of human development. We are born totally incompetent, and, therefore, are absolutely dependent on the care of others.

But we are born two important features:

  • First, an incredible capacity to learn;
  • Second, with a “hardware” that requires “software” to run…
We are born with an excellent piece of “hardware” – our brains – but it comes with minimal “programming”. The rest of the “programming” we have to do ourselves – and we do it through learning.

So, this is what education is all about: a process of human development that allows us not only to survive (become competent) but to choose a life for ourselves (become autonomous). Education is the process through which the incompetent and dependent beings that are born become competent, autonomous adults.

資料來源:http://www.microsoft.com/taiwan/education/pil/visit/Eduardo_Chaves.aspx

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